Brokers Review Trading

Best Stock Brokers in Europe for 2021

Whether you’re a beginner or experienced investor, you’ll want a stock broker that offers low fees, a large number of stocks and ETFs, excellent customer service, and easy-to-use mobile and web platforms. But with so many options, it can be an investment in itself to find the best broker in Europe for your needs.

The sheer number of choices can be daunting, which is why I created this list of the best brokers in Europe to help you make informed decisions about where to invest. After years of research and testing, I’ve narrowed down the options to five top choices by comparing for price, products, ease of use, and regulatory oversight. Most importantly, I focused on brokers available in multiple European countries. In the end, however, the choice is up to you.

Exclusive Offer: New investors who open and verify an account between July 21 to September 1 will receive €50 in refunded transaction fees. Sign up to DEGIRO here.

Best stock brokers in Europe

Here are the top stock brokers in Europe, based on years of research:

  1. Best overall and best for beginners: DEGIRO
  2. Best for trust: Interactive Brokers
  3. Best for zero commissions: eToro
  4. Best multi-asset broker: XTB
  5. Best investor protection: Firstrade

Some online stock brokers in Europe are best for beginners and have very low fees, while others appeal to experienced investors with large portfolios. Whether you’re looking for low fees, specific investment products, or value safety above all else, this ranking has you covered.

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☝️ Why is BUX, Trade Republic, FreeTrade, NordNet, etc. not on the list? This ranking only includes pan-European brokers, i.e. those operating in the majority of Europe and accessible to most European nationalities.

1. DEGIRO: Best overall and best for beginners

#1 Best stock broker in Europe (in my opinion)

DEGIRO - European discount stock broker
DEGIRO – #1 Best European Stock Broker

With more than 1,000,000 European investors and 80 international rewards, including “Top Rated Overall Investment Platform” by the Financial Times, Amsterdam-based DEGIRO tops my ranking as the best online stock broker in Europe.

Highlights

  • Ultra low trading fees and zero-to-low non-trading fees
  • Zero-commission monthly ETFs trades
  • Access to thousands of stocks across 50 markets and 30 exchanges
  • An easy-to-use web platform suitable for those new to investing
  • Regulated in two tier-one countries

Things to keep in mind

  • Limited geographical availability
  • No support for debit/credit cards and e-money services
  • Education section is very fundamental
  • No. of free trades could be increased

Disclaimer: Investing involves risk of loss.

Fee-wise, it’s no surprise DEGIRO has become so popular among European investors as it offers ultra low trading fees, zero non-trading fees, and monthly commission-free ETF trades.

DEGIRO is owned by Flatex Bank, a large German bank, and is regulated by the tier-one financial authorities, the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM), and the Dutch Central Bank (DNB). DEGIRO is also registered with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the UK. Moreover, clients are protected under the EU directive on investor compensation schemes, and assets are kept with a segregated custodian separated from the assets of the broker.

The DEGIRO mobile app. Source: Screenshot from DEGIRO.com

DEGIRO main features

FeesLow
Products Stocks, ETFs, bonds, options, futures
Supported countries See list
RegulationAFM (Netherlands), FCA (UK)
Minimum deposit0
Inactivity feeNo
Time to open account48 hours
Base currenciesCHF, CZK, DKK, EUR, GBP, HUF, NOK, PLN, SEK

Fees

DEGIRO is a solid choice if you want to save on costs, as it has no minimum deposit, no minimum trading requirement, and no inactivity fees. Not only that, DEGIRO charges no fees for account opening or closing, deposits, withdrawals, annual maintenance, custodial services, or maintaining your account.

  • Commission-free ETFs: DEGIRO is popular for its commission-free ETFs. Each month, clients can buy or sell a number of popular ETFs commission-free, regardless of the order size. See the list of included ETFs and the terms here.
  • Discount trading costs: With the ‘Basic’ account, most international ETFs only cost around a €2 plus 0.03% of the total order value. For stocks, you pay £1.75 plus 0.022% on each trade on the London Stock Exchange (LSE), with a maximum of £5.00. On German Xetra you pay €4.00 plus 0.05%, with a maximum of €60. Trading stocks on other European exchanges only cost around €4.00 plus 0.05%.
  • Low non-trading fees: Trading in a currency different from your own incurs a 0.10% fee of the traded amount. For each stock exchange you trade on, DEGIRO charges a connectivity fee of €2.5 per year, except for the LSE which is free.
The DEGIRO cost calculator. Source: Screenshot from DEGIRO.com

Why DEGIRO

Investors looking for an all-around easy-to-use, low-cost broker will find DEGIRO an excellent fit. While noticeable drawbacks include slow customer support and a lack of in-depth educational resources, all-in-all DEGIRO delivers a great package for everyday investors, including tier-one regulatory licenses, beginner-friendly trading platforms, extremely low fees, and commission free ETF trades. I think this robust combination makes DEGIRO a winner for buy-and-hold investors.

4.8 / 5
TOTAL SCORE
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Investing involves risk of loss.

2. Interactive Brokers: Best for trust

#2 Best stock broker in Europe

Interactive Brokers – #2 Best European Stock Broker

European investors looking for a highly trusted broker that has stood the test of time will find Interactive Brokers the best possible fit. Interactive Brokers was founded in 1978 and is one of the largest online brokerages in the world, with regulatory licences in 11 tier-one jurisdictions, a superb capital position of $9 billion, the strongest security track record, and the lowest possible trading fees across all major asset classes.

Interactive Brokers offers the lowest commissions and the largest list of stocks, ETFs, bonds, funds, options, futures, forex pairs, metals, and cryptocurrencies from 140 international exchanges in over 33 countries, all accessible from a single investor account. European users can enjoy this experience to the fullest thanks to Interactive Brokers’ local presence in the European continent and number of supported countries.

Highlights

  • Ultra low trading fees across all asset classes
  • Highly trusted with 40+ years of history
  • Largest number stocks, options, futures, forex, bonds, and funds
  • Great for active trading
  • The cheapest margin rates
  • Supports more currencies than any other competitor
  • Regulated by 11 financial authorities

Things to keep in mind

  • IB’s trading platforms are feature-rich but can be overwhelming for beginners
  • Little hand-holding for beginners

Read more: My review of Interactive Brokers

Interactive Brokers main features

FeesLow
Products Stocks, ETFs, FOREX, bonds, funds, options, futures, commodities, cryptocurrencies, robo-trading
Supported countries Most of Europe
RegulationSEC, FINRA, NYSE (USA); FCA (UK), CSSF (LUX), CBI (IE), MNB (HU)
Minimum deposit0
Inactivity feeNo
Time to open account72 hours
Base currencies22, incl. EUR, GBP, USD

Fees

Interactive Brokers offers some of lowest trading fees and commissions available on the market (see examples below). The broker operates with two pricing models for international clients: fixed and tiered pricing. For both pricing structures, there are €0 monthly inactivity or custodian fees and no account minimums. Unfortunately, Interactive Brokers does not offer its commission-free ‘Lite’ account to European customers.

  • Fixed pricing plan: Interactive brokers has a simple pricing plan for occasional investors. When buying a Euro-denominated ETF or stock on a European exchange, you pay around 0.10% commission of the trade value, with a minimum of €4 and a maximum of €29. This plan includes all commissions, currency exchange fees, and regulatory fees, making it easy to figure out.
  • Tiered Pricing: Interactive Brokers also offers a leveled pricing plan with decreasing commissions for larger volumes. This plan requires more calculations but will generally be cheaper when executing larger orders. You only pay around 0.05% of the trade value for Euro-based products, with a minimum of €1.25 and maximum around €29. On top, you pay a clearing fee of €0.1, plus currency exchange fees. 
Commission overview on Interactive Brokers

Why Interactive Brokers

As a stock broker for European retail investors, Interactive Brokers appeals with its plethora of products, rock-bottom pricing, long history, and high level of trust. Interactive Brokers used to be great primarily for larger portfolio because of an inactivity fee for maintaining an account. However, in July 2021, the broker eliminated this fee along with any account minimums. This combination of low trading commissions and zero account maintenance fees makes IB more or less an ideal brokerage for large and smaller investors alike.

4.8 / 5
TOTAL SCORE
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In recent years, Interactive Brokers has made great efforts to win over less experienced customers with the beginner-friendly Client Portal trading platform that is available in multiple languages. We can only hope they make zero-commission trading available for Europeans in the years to come. All in all, Interactive Brokers has a time-tested, robust offering of investments that will satisfy most investors.

3. eToro: Best for zero commissions

#3 Best stock broker in Europe

eToro – #3 Best European Stock Broker

Please note: This content is not intended for US users.

With more than 12 million users worldwide, eToro has grown to become one of the most popular online stock brokerages in Europe. eToro offers commission-free stock trading with few strings attached.

Highlights

  • Zero commissions stock trading for residents in certain countries
  • Excellent for social and copy trading
  • User-friendly web platform and mobile
  • Regulated in by multiple financial authorities worldwide

Things to keep in mind

  • Mix between leveraged CFDs and real equities can be confusing for beginners
  • Operates in USD exclusively
  • $5 withdrawal fee

eToro’s platforms for mobile and web provide access to over 2,500 instruments. Besides stocks and ETFs, investors get access to an impressive number of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and Ether, but also commodities, foreign currencies, and indices, all tradable at low costs. Another unique key feature of eToro is the ability to do social trading and copy the strategies of top-performing traders automatically.

We do not endorse Contracts for Differences (‘CFDs’), but we are required to provide the following disclaimer: 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFD’s with this provider.

eToro is regulated by multiple top-tier financial authorities around the world, including the UK’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA Licence No. FRN 583263), the Cyprus Securities Exchange Commission (CySEC Licence No. 109/10), as well as the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.

UK residents should note that cryptocurrency trading at eToro is not available to them due to FCA restrictions. In addition, cryptocurrency trading is also not available to residents of France (including French Territories), the Netherlands, and Russia.

eToro main features

FeesLow
Products Stocks, ETFs, cryptocurrencies, commodities, indices, CFDs
Supported countries Visit eToro for the most up to date list of supported jurisdictions
RegulationCySEC (Cyprus), FCA (UK), ASIC (Australia)
Minimum deposit$200 – 1,000
Inactivity feeYes, after 1 year
Time to open account48 hours
Base currenciesUSD

Fees

eToro has commission-free stocks for EU and UK clients, meaning there is no broker fee for buying or selling. For the most part, you will trade and own the underlying asset in your name, not a derivative, which is important in terms of protection. There are also no management fees, ticket fees or roll-over fees for non-leveraged positions. However, please note that other fees may apply.

  • Zero-commissions: eToro has a solid selection of popular real stocks that can be traded with no extra broker fees involved, as long as you don’t use leverage. This includes stock favorites such as Amazon, Boeing, and Tesla. There is no limit to the number of stocks you can buy, making it a great fit for buy-and-hold investors.
  • Leveraged trading fees: Thrill-seeking traders get access to a broad selection of leveraged CFD products at competitive spreads (the difference between the ask and the bid price). This includes 94 crypto pairs, 13 indices, 19 commodities and metals, and 47 traditional forex pairs, employable with leverage for shorting or longing.
  • Other fees: eToro has no exchange connectivity fees, general management fees, deposit fees, or stamp duty fees. There is a $10 inactivity fee after 12 months, but simply logging into your account will reset the timer. There is a 0.5% currency exchange fee for conversions into USD, and a withdrawal fee of $5.

Why eToro

eToro has come a long way since it was first started in 2006 and now attracts close to 20 million website visits each month. They are fully regulated within Europe, with financial oversight from the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), the UK watchdog, and the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC). Most importantly, European clients are protected by EU or UK investor compensation schemes and own the underlying asset upon purchasing.

By joining the growing trend of free stock trading, eToro offers a great package for investors with fundamental needs, as well as for those with more speculative trades in mind. Thanks to its beginner-friendly trading platforms and simple pricing structure, investors can easily buy and sell over 1,500 stocks and 150 ETFs without worrying too much about fees or complexity.

4.6 / 5
TOTAL SCORE
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eToro is a multi-asset platform which offers both investing in stocks and cryptoassets, as well as trading CFD assets. Please note that 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFD’s with this provider. You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Risk warning

eToro is a multi-asset platform that offers both investing in stocks and crypto assets as well as trading CFD assets.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Cryptoassets are volatile instruments that can fluctuate widely in a very short timeframe and therefore are not appropriate for all investors. Other than via CFDs, trading crypto assets is unregulated and therefore is not supervised by any EU regulatory framework.

Past performance is not an indication of future results.

Your capital is at risk.

eToro USA LLC does not offer CFDs and makes no representation and assumes no liability as to the accuracy or completeness of the content of this publication, which has been prepared by our partner utilizing publicly available non-entity specific information about eToro.

Other fees may apply. For more information, visit etoro.com/trading/fees.

4. XTB: Best multi-asset broker

#4 Best stock broker in Europe

XTB Broker
XTB – #4 Best Stock Broker for Europeans

XTB started in 2002 as a derivatives and forex broker but has now expanded to offer real stocks and ETFs in multiple European countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Portugal, Poland, France, Spain, and Slovakia, with more to follow in the future. If you reside in one of these jurisdictions you can invest commission-free with XTB in over 2,500 real shares and 200 ETFs across 16 exchanges worldwide.

Highlights

  • Zero commissions for stocks and ETFs for residents in certain countries
  • Best overall trading app for mobile
  • Best learning resources to educate yourself
  • Regulated in by multiple financial authorities and publicly traded on a stock exchange

Things to keep in mind

  • Real stocks are only available in certain jurisdictions
  • Mix between CFDs and real equity can be confusing for beginners

This offer includes top companies like Tesla, Apple, and Amazon, as well the most popular ETFs from iShares/BlackRock, Amundi, and Lyxor. With the purchase of securities, you acquire company shares and participate in the results in the form of potential dividends.

We do not endorse Contracts for Differences (‘CFDs’), but we are required to provide the following disclaimer: 78% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.

XTB has been making great progress into the fast-changing online brokerage scene of Europe and provides access to a variety of markets besides equities such as stock CFDs, cryptocurrencies, forex, indices, metals, and commodities. Investors can not only trade real stocks, but also synthetic stocks. This new derivative initially behaves like real stocks and reflects the stock value, but instead of being an actual security, the underlying instrument is a CFD with no leverage. Investors also receive a dividend for synthetic stocks.

What you need to know

  • Who it’s for: Equity investors from eligible countries who want to do occasional trading.
  • Tradable assets: Real stocks and ETFs in select countries; synthetic shares; CFDs on forex, currencies, cryptocurrencies (not available in the UK).
  • Fees: XTB advertises zero commissions on shares; 0.08% and up per lot for stock and ETF CFDs with a min. of €8 per trade, and a min. spread of 0.5; zero commissions on cryptocurrency trades, but a varying spread applies; no minimum deposit; no deposit fee; no withdrawal fee withdrawals above $100; €10 inactivity fee after 12 months; other fees may apply
  • Trading platform: XTB’s proprietary xStation and xStation Mobile platforms have a modern look and feel, one-click trading, news feeds, and offer quick access to set market, limit, and stop orders.
  • Regulation: XTB is a publicly traded company and regulated in the U.K. and registered with the Financial Conduct Authority (License No. FRN 522157) as well as the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF), and the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (License No.169/12).

It’s free to open an account with XTB and there are no activity monthly/yearly fees except €10 if there is “no opening or closing of the position on the Customer’s account within the last 365 days and no cash deposit within the last 90 days.” Fees for trading real stocks and ETFs on XTB may vary and include exchange connectivity fees. There are, however, no minimum deposit requirement, no costs for deposits through bank transfers or via debit cards, no withdrawal fees for amounts over $100, and no fees for closing an account.

4.5 / 5
TOTAL SCORE
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Your capital is at risk. 77% of retail CFD accounts lose money. See full terms and conditions on XTB's website.

5. Firstrade: Best investor protection

#5 Best stock broker in Europe

Firstrade is a well-known, low-cost US online brokerage with extensive investing opportunities for both beginners and experienced investors. The firm was founded in 1985 and is a standout due to its long-standing commission-free trading offer for stocks, options, and ETFs for investors across the world. Eligible European nationalities can trade on Firstrade with $0 commission per trade, with no minimum deposits or account maintenance fee.  

Highlights

  • Zero commissions for stocks, ETFs, options, and funds
  • Investor protection up to $500,000
  • Securities lending program to earn extra income
  • Highly intuitive mobile app
  • Advanced charting features

Things to keep in mind

  • Only supports USD
  • Does not support low-cost online money transfer services, such as Wise.
  • Slow customer support

Firstrade offers international accounts high account protection of up to $500,000 through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC), of which $250,000 may be in cash. In addition to the regular compensation scheme, Firstrade provides additional account insurance up to an aggregate of $150 million through their clearing firm, Apex Clearing Corporation.

Firstrade’s web-based platform is basic design-wise but highly functional, whereas the Firstrade mobile app delivers a highly intuitive experience where can do just about anything you need in an investment account. The firm is especially interesting in the area of combining regular investing with options trading and has an extensive library of educational material on the subject.    

Besides fee-free trading, Firstrade offers investors the opportunity to generate additional income and improve returns by lending their securities to financial institutions for short selling. Interest is accrued on a daily basis and paid out to you once every calendar month. There are no restrictions on stocks that are lent out and the account holder can sell at any point. This unique feature could potentially improve returns greatly for investors with large holdings.

4.3 / 5
TOTAL SCORE

Firstrade is currently available in the following European jurisdictions: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

Conclusion

You now know the most important aspects to watch out for when choosing a stock broker in Europe. In the end, the most important thing is that the broker is reliable and that you’re satisfied with the level of fees you’re paying and selection of products available. Personally, I think it’s sometimes worth to pay a bit more to feel that my money is safe and that I can rely on the broker for several decades into the future.

To summarize, here are my top picks for the best stock brokers available in Europe:
RankBrokerBest forRegulation
1DEGIROOverall & low costAFM (NL), FCA (UK)
2Interactive BrokersExperienced investorsSEC, FINRA, NYSE (USA); FCA (UK), CSSF (LUX), + several others
3eToroCommission-free tradingFCA (UK), CySEC (CY), ASIC (AU)
4XTBMulti-asset brokerFCA (UK), CySEC (CY), KNF (PL)
5FirstradeInvestor protectionSEC, FINRA (USA)
Ranking of the best brokers for Europeans

FAQ

What is a stock brokerage?

A stock brokerage or broker is a firm that gives investors access to securities exchanges in return for a commission. Modern brokerages facilitate the connection between investors and exchanges through feature-rich online software called trading platforms.

What is a stock?

A stock is an investment that represents the partial ownership of a corporation. Stock owners are entitled to a share of the corporation’s profits. Strictly speaking, “shares” are units of stocks. But in everyday financial language, “stocks”, “shares”, and “equity” are used interchangeably.

What are ETFs?

An exchange-traded fund or ETF is an investment that usually follows a major index like the Dow Jones or S&P 500, but they can also track a specific industry sector such as information technology or represent a collection of securities from developing markets. While owners of ETFs do not own any underlying assets, ETFs are popular because they offer low expensive ratios and reduce exposure to individual securities through diversification.

How do I choose an online broker?

Choosing the right online brokerage presents the biggest obstacle for most new investors. When it comes to selecting a broker, there’s no one size fits all choice. Depending on your experience and specific needs, you may need accounts with multiple independent brokerage firms. Brokers tend to specialize in different areas, and those who don’t are mostly expensive for beginners.

What is the best European stock broker for beginners?

For new investors, choosing the right brokerage account is about much more than having access to thousands of products. The best stock brokers for beginners offer simple pricing structures, fast online support, and excellent onboarding tutorials. Above all, a simple trading platform without too much fuss is key to getting started.

What European stockbroker offers the lowest fees?

For private investors with small and medium-sized portfolios, the cheapest stockbrokers in Europe are DEGIRO, eToro, and Revolut. All three are popular discount brokers with very low fees.

Who are the largest brokerage firms in Europe?

Many of the largest brokerage firms in Europe do not disclose their financials publicly, making it difficult to compare them for size. However, in terms of revenue and number of users, the largest European brokers include Saxo Bank, IG, DEGIRO, and Comdirect.

Can I invest in US stocks from Europe?

In short, yes. Most respected European brokers will let you invest in US stocks and provide access to US securities exchanges. However, you cannot buy US-domiciled stocks in Euro, which means you need to account for the currency exchange rate risk.

What are the best alternatives to stocks?

There are plenty of alternatives to stocks which may help you build a more diverse portfolio. The best alternatives to stocks include real estate crowdfunding and commodities like gold and silver. If you’re comfortable taking higher risk to increase the potential return, cryptocurrencies may be worth exploring.

Which broker charges the lowest fees?

For normal stock trades, DEGIRO and eToro offer the most competitive prices. While DEGIRO has the edge for cheap currency conversions and has no inactivity fees, eToro offers the most competitive all-in pricing plan with zero-commissions stock trades. Both platforms are great to save on costs.

Guide: What to look for in a stockbroker?

There is no one-size-fits-all stock broker, and sometimes you’re going to need more than just one. Stock brokers often specialize in different areas or cater to different investor groups. You might find some European brokers have very large product assortments and numerous trading platforms available but are equally more expensive, while discount brokers in Europe may have a small repertoire of investments and only a single platform but have very low prices.

Know your needs

The best stock brokers available in Europe generally offer the same set menu: individual stocks, Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), bonds, as well as instruments and derivatives like options, futures, and varying leveraged products.

Beginners often choose to invest in a combination of stocks and ETFs. Hand-picking stocks can be advantageous if you wish to manage your portfolio more precisely or have information about the sector to potentially beat the market.

However, ETFs like an S&P 500 tracker gives you exposure to a lot of different companies, usually at very low cost, and requires few trading decisions and time to manage. If you believe gold or another commodity presents a safe haven during financial turmoil, gold ETFs gives you the ability to invest in a market and currency hedged product.

Fees and commissions

Research how much the broker charge in fees and commissions for buying and selling your favorite investments. A low-fee online brokerage lets you keep most of your profits for yourself without charging too much for converting currency, withdrawing money, or adding secret fees or markups to trades.

Ease-of-use

Whether you’re beginner or more experienced investor, you’ll want a trading platform that’s easy to navigate with a user-friendly design. The best European brokers offer a web-based and mobile option to keep track of your account, buying, selling, and researching new markets and products.

Reputation

Unfortunately, there are very few brokers out there with a clean public image and zero complaints about them. In recent years, Trustpilot and other popular review sites have been spammed with fake reviews and fake offers to recover lost money, making it difficult to separate genuine reviews from false ones. We suggest you spend some time researching Reddit or similar forums that are more strictly moderated to familiarize yourself with the first-hand experience of other investors.  

Regulation

To protect retail investors, all European Union member states have adopted in full or partially the same regulatory framework for investment services and activities called as MiFID II and MiFIR. An authorized broker will also be able to “passport” or offer its financial services to residents in other members states based on the authorization given in the country where it has an address. For example, a lot of brokers choose Cyprus as their European base as the country has the lowest cooperate tax of only 12.5% but also because the country has adapted the MiFID in full.

In theory, all EU-based and regulated brokers are subject to much the same rules and scrutiny. In practice, your safety as an investor largely depends on the abilities and resources of the national financial authority overseeing the broker. Bodies also enforce varying degrees of rules and there are differences in terms of money segregation and withdrawal times. Moreover, strictly regulated brokers are not too big to fail, and strict regulatory oversight is by no means a guarantee of indefinite financial solvency.

Methodology: How the best brokers in Europe were selected

We’re dedicated to providing readers with honest, in-depth reviews and rankings of online investment and trading platforms. Our ratings are the result of several months of testing all aspects of a platform, focusing on the products and markets available, the overall platform experience, fees, the account opening process, safety, account security, and our experience with customer support. Our ranking is visualized with stars used represent the lowest rating (one star) to the highest rating (five stars).

About the author: Lucas P., a pen name for privacy reasons, is an investor, hobby finance writer, and die-hard FIRE enthusiast. Lucas has previously served as editor for a news outlet in his European home country but now spends his time dabbling with traditional and alternative investments. To learn more about Lucas, visit his profile page.